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Cellular And Molecular Immunology Abbas Free Download (April-2022)




[Table 1](#t0005){ref-type="table"} lists the essential elements of the research plan.Table 1Essential elements of a plan for an immune response to a therapeutic vaccine.Table 11.The vaccine candidate(s) and/or product(s) are tested for safety.2.Immunogenicity is tested in non-human primates (NHPs), the species most closely related to humans.3.Toxicity is tested in NHPs.4.Induction of an immune response in NHPs is tested.5.Immunogenicity in NHPs is tested.6.There are toxicity tests in NHPs.7.Toxicity is tested in NHPs.8.Immunogenicity is tested in mice.9.There are toxicity tests in mice.10.The combination of the safety and efficacy tests is presented to regulatory bodies. The first two elements are mandatory to determine that the vaccine candidate(s) and/or product(s) do not cause any health problems in humans. In addition, they provide a level of control of the vaccine that, while irrelevant for vaccine development, is essential in the testing of a therapeutic vaccine, which is given to patients with cancer and immunosuppressed patients. The major hurdle in the development of any therapeutic vaccine is the induction of an immune response, as a therapeutic vaccine requires that the immune system be activated to fight the malignancy. In spite of the potential for inducing an immune response, the administration of a therapeutic vaccine to a human should be tested in a species that best mimics the immune system of humans. In all vaccines that are used for humans, immunity is generated following the administration of an attenuated live virus, live bacteria or live recombinant protein of the virus or bacteria. The generation of immunity is initiated by the exposure of an antigen that is conserved between the virus or bacteria and the live attenuated virus or bacteria (i.e., live vaccination). The exposure of the antigen to the immune system induces a response that culminates in the production of neutralizing antibodies, as well as non-neutralizing antibodies that may activate and/or stimulate cellular immunity. The vaccine used in cancer patients should be able to induce immunity that is effective in the context of an advanced, disseminated, immunosuppressed, and multiply-resistant tumor. The cancer patients being treated in a clinical trial will probably be immunosuppressed. The vaccine should, therefore, be able to induce immune responses that are directed



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Cellular And Molecular Immunology Abbas Free Download (April-2022)

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